Data Sources

Country-level Sources

When data were not available from an international survey, country-level data sources were sought. Examples include data from national statistics bureaus and country-level surveys.

Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)

DHS is a survey of more than 90 developing nations, focusing on population and health information. This report uses the most recent data available for each country, ranging from 2001 to 2014.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

As part of the United Nations, FAO compiles statistics on food and agriculture-related indicators, including undernourishment. The most recent data are projected for 2014 to 2016 and were extracted from their statistical division’s online database FAOSTAT.

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series-International (IPUMS)

IPUMS is a compilation of harmonized censuses from countries throughout the world. This report uses the most recent data available for each country, ranging from 2000 to 2011.

International Social Survey Programme (ISSP)

ISSP is a collaboration between annual national surveys to ensure data comparability on social science questions. This report uses their 2012 collection on family and changing gender roles. These surveys were fielded around 2012, but not necessarily in the 2012 calendar year.

LIS (formerly known as the Luxembourg Income Study)

LIS is a collection of harmonized data on the income and wealth of individuals in middle- and high-income countries. Data from LIS used in this report date from 2002 to 2013.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

OECD’s Family Database provides cross-national statistics on the well-being of families and children throughout the member and partner countries of the OECD.

Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)

PISA is an international tri-annual assessment of literacy in reading, mathematics, and science. PISA is administered in all OECD member countries as well as additional self-selected countries. This report uses data from the contextual part of the 2012 parent survey. Unfortunately, the items of interest were asked in a small group of countries in this iteration of the survey.

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

UNICEF’s 2015 State of the World’s Children report was used for information on fertility.

World Bank

The World Bank provides a wealth of information on their databank at This report utilizes their data on absolute poverty.

World Values Survey (WVS)

WVS is a survey of political and sociocultural values in more than 50 countries. This report uses the most recent data available for each country, from the fourth through sixth survey waves, which date from 2001 to 2014.

For more information on specific sources, see e-ppendix at