Figure 5


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Source: TFR: United Nations Population Division as reported by UNICEF in their 2015 State of the World’s Children report, except where noted for Taiwan. Births outside marriage: Various sources.

1: Note: Nonmarital childbearing is illegal (subject to fine) in some provinces in China.
2: Source for births outside marriage: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). For countries where DHS data are used, it is the proportion giving birth in the year before the survey who are not married at the time of the survey. The most recent data for South Africa (1998) are considerably older than for other countries; more recent Demographic and Health Survey data (2003) were deemed unreliable by the implementing organizations. Turkey, Jordan, and Egypt DHS interviewed only ever-married women (all waves).
3: Source for births outside marriage: Population Reference Bureau (PRB)
4: Source for births outside marriage: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2010 rates) drawing on data from Eurostat (2013), United Nations Statistical Division (2013) and National Statistical Offices
“5: Source for TFR: Taiwan Council for Economic Planning and Development . Data reflect 2011 TFR.
Source for births outside marriage: Social Indicators 2009,”
6: Source for births outside marriage: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Fertility Report 2012. Note that these data are from registration sources and refer to all births, inclusive of living and non-living. For Israel, data refer to Jewish population only. For Argentina, consensual marriages are grouped with marriages.
7: Source for births outside marriage: Eurostat Rate refers to births at which time the mother’s status was other than married.
8: Decline over time in nonmarital childbearing in Nigeria is consistent with the recorded decline in cohabitation.
9: Source for births outside marriage: Melo Vieira, J. (2013). The evolution of births outside of marriage, paternal recognition and children’s rights in Brazil. Presented at 2013 Annual Meeting Program of the Population Association of America. Available at:
10: Source for births outside marriage: Servidio de Registro Civil e Identificacion